Case change on Xcode project folder name results in Interface Builder weirdness
This one had me scratching my head for a bit (and after restarting and, finally, recreating my project from scratch because I thought it was a project corruption of some sort).
I renamed the folder that my project was in from myProject to MyProject after having opened the project from the myProject folder in Xcode. Xcode appeared to remember the earlier version of the name in its quick start screen. Selecting the project from that screen appeared to work but Interface Builder (IB) would not see any of the images in my project and the Project media folder in IB looked empty.
I only just realized that it was related to the case-sensitivity issue when I ran into it again after recreating my project. Opening the project from the quick start screen resulted in the missing images in IB but starting it via terminal or File → Open… (⌘ O) worked perfectly.
Hope this helps you before you lose too much hair and end up recreating your project like I did.